When it comes to hydraulic systems, there are many kinds of applications. Choosing the right hydraulic oil is a matter of knowing what your particular system requires and the optimal type of fluid to make it run at its best. If you choose an oil that's subpar for your particular application, it might not result in immediate failure, but it will cause chronically poor performance and deterioration of components.
Type of Pump
The first consideration for your choice of hydraulic oil is the type of pump you have. Different kinds of pumps require different grades of viscosity. There are three main types of pumps: gear, piston, and vane. Gear pumps can be internal or external. Internal gear pumps give the widest range of choice when it comes to oil viscosity, while external gear pump choices have a more limited range. Piston pumps have operating pressures that are very high and require oil whose viscosity ranges up to 160 centistokes. Vane pumps have similar hydraulic oil viscosity requirements, though they are more complex, mechanically speaking.
Hydraulic Oil Composition
The composition of a given hydraulic oil has a direct bearing on the applications for which it will be the most useful. Synthetic oil can work well in operating environments in which heat and pressure vary by wide margins, since it offers a great deal of stability and can be highly effective as a lubricant. On the other hand, synthetic oil is more expensive and can be incompatible with other parts of a hydraulic system, such as some materials used in sealing. Petroleum-based hydraulic oils offer good performance and are usually further enhanced by additives, depending on the specific application to which it's applied. Regardless of the type of oil used, you utility equipment takes a lot of abuse and works hard, so make a choice that will help preserve the longevity of your truck's performance and use.
The most important factor, overall, in choosing hydraulic oil is the particular application for which the oil will be used. Some hydraulic systems require performance-enhancing additives to do their jobs, while other systems require a specific level of viscosity to function at their best. If hydraulic oil doesn't have the proper level of viscosity for the particular pump and the temperature range of operation, the efficiency and durability of the system as a whole will be severely compromised.
Hydraulic systems are essential to the operations of utility vehicles such as bucket trucks. To keep these systems functioning at their best, always be familiar with manufacturer recommendations and follow them closely. Choosing the right hydraulic oil for a given system will maximize that system's performance and lengthen its life cycle of usefulness.